My laboratory focuses on studies to determine how the microbiota contributes to colorectal cancer. We have studied in detail the carcinogenic bacterium, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), using this organism as a model for inducing colon inflammation and carcinogenesis. Over time, we identified the B. fragilis toxin gene (bft), purified the protein (BFT) and defined its mechanism of action in vitro. Subsequently, we established in vivo models of ETBF colitis and colon tumorigenesis. Using these models, we identified that ETBF induce selective Stat3/Th17 immune responses in the colon and that these pathways, at least in part, contribute to colon tumorigenesis. Our data were the first to report a Th17 mechanism for inflammation-induced endogenous colon tumor induction; subsequent work by other groups has confirmed the importance of Th17/IL-17 mechanisms in many cancers including human colon cancer. We subsequently turned our attention to identifying bacterial contributions to human colon cancer. This work led us to propose the hypothesis that biofilm-associated colon mucosal pro-carcinogenesis marks an early event in the biology of colonic epithelial cell transformation in a subset of sporadic colon cancers. This hypothesis is now being tested in a prospective NCI-supported study involving 2000 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy with mechanistic work conducted in germ-free mice. We have extended our work to Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) to further test the hypothesis that the microbiota and potentially specific bacterial species contribute to colon carcinogenesis. This work represents the earliest stage of colon polyposis at which microbiota disease associations and mechanisms have been examined to date. Our long-term goal is to devise ways to utilize the microbiota markers to identify and better predict those at risk for colon carcinogenesis.
Housseau F, Wu S, Wick EC, Fan H, Wu X, Llosa NJ, Smith KN, Tam A, Ganguly S, Wanyiri JW, Iyadorai T, Malik AA, Roslani AC, Vadivelu JS, Van Meerbeke S, Huso DL, Pardoll DM, Sears CL. Redundant Innate and Adaptive Sources of IL17 Production Drive Colon Tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2016 PubMed PMID: 26880802.
Johnson CH, Dejea CM, Edler D, Hoang LT, Santidrian AF, Felding BH, Ivanisevic J, Cho K, Wick EC, Hechenbleikner EM, Uritboonthai W, Goetz L, Casero RA Jr, Pardoll DM, White JR, Patti GJ, Sears CL, Siuzdak G. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis. Cell Metab. 2015 PubMed PMID: 25959674.
Dejea CM, Wick EC, Hechenbleikner EM, White JR, Mark Welch JL, Rossetti BJ, Peterson SN, Snesrud EC, Borisy GG, Lazarev M, Stein E, Vadivelu J, Roslani AC, Malik AA, Wanyiri JW, Goh KL, Thevambiga I, Fu K, Wan F, Llosa N, Housseau F, Romans K, Wu X, McAllister FM, Wu S, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Pardoll DM, Sears CL. Microbiota organization is a distinct feature of proximal colorectal cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 PubMed PMID: 25489084.
Sears CL, Geis AL, Housseau F. Bacteroides fragilis subverts mucosal biology: from symbiont to colon carcinogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2014 PubMed PMID: 25105360.
Wu S, Rhee KJ, Albesiano E, Rabizadeh S, Wu X, Yen HR, Huso DL, Brancati FL, Wick E, McAllister F, Housseau F, Pardoll DM, Sears CL. A human colonic commensal promotes colon tumorigenesis via activation of T helper type 17 T cell responses. Nat Med. 2009 PubMed PMID: 19701202.